A "lean office" is the application of the "Lean" philosophy to front end processes. In the early 1990's, Toyota Manufacturing developed the concept of lean, identifying eight categories of process waste (or "muda"). They are: transportation, inventory, motion, waiting, over-processing, over-production, defects, and mnemonics. According to the pioneers of the concept, a manufacturer can actually add value to products by eliminating waste in these processes. This breakthrough pervades today's manufacturing and is now starting to be found in places off the factory floor: namely, the office.